Film photographers, especially those that have done their own printing, know that exposing photo sensitive paper with more light meant you were essentially burning that part of the image with darker tones. If you wanted to lighten something up you used a piece of paper to block, or dodge, the light.
In the digital darkroom there are half-a-dozen ways to dodge and burn an image - the progression of this image displays a technique using a separate overlay layer.
I've included five different looks at the same image below, each representing a different step in my post-processing. You can switch back and forth at your leisure and see the subtle changes each step makes towards the final image.
Step By Step Guide to the Above Images
1. Straight out of the Camera
2. Lightroom Adjustments - They were slight, I enabled the lens profile correction which fixed the slight visual distortion on the outer edges of the frame and I bumped the Clarity to +19. That's it.
3. I created a digital duotone - which simply put is a way to do monochrome images that are richer than a simple black and white. Creating one in Adobe Photoshop CS5 is easy: change the mode from RGB to Greyscale. Then change the mode to Duotone (Image>Mode>Duotone), the duotone option is greyed out unless your image is already a greyscale. Then you can make your own or choose from the myriad of presets. This is one of the Warm presets.
4. To create a dodge and burn layer like this one. Click New Layer on the Layers panel, then set the options like the insert below. Any area darker than 50% gray will darken the tones (burn) and any area lighter than 50% gray will lighten the tones (dodge). I did the painting using a Wacom Intuous4 tablet, which is pressure sensitive, and allows for easier shading using a pen instead of a mouse - for me at least.